History of Special Education
Perhaps the largest and most pervasive issue in special education and my own journey in education is special education’s relationship to general education. History has shown that this has never been an easy, clear-cut relationship between the two. There has been a lot of giving and taking, or maybe I should say pulling and pushing for educational policy and the educational practices and services of education and special education by the human educators who deliver those services on both sides of the aisle like me.
Over the last 20+ years, I have been on both sides of education. I have seen and felt what it was like to be a regular mainstream educator dealing with special education policy, special education students, and specialized teachers. I have also been on the special education side, trying to get regular education teachers to work more effectively with my special education students through modifying their instruction and materials and having a little more patience and empathy.
Furthermore, I have been a mainstream regular education teacher who taught regular education inclusion classes, trying to figure out how to best work with some new special education teacher in my class and their special education students. In contrast, I have been a special education inclusion teacher intruding on some regular education teachers’ territory with my special education students and the modifications I thought these teachers should implement. I can tell you first-hand that none of this give and take between special education and regular education has been easy. Nor do I see this pushing and pulling becoming easy anytime soon.
So, what is special education? And what makes it so special and yet so complex and controversial sometimes? Well, special education, as its name suggests, is a specialized branch of education. It claims its lineage to such people as Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard (1775-1838), the physician who “tamed” the “wild boy of Aveyron,” and Anne Sullivan Macy (1866-1936), the teacher who “worked miracles” with Helen Keller.
Special educators teach students who have physical, cognitive, language, learning, sensory, and/or emotional abilities that deviate from those of the general population. Special educators provide instruction specifically tailored to meet individualized needs. These teachers basically make education more available and accessible to students who otherwise would have limited access to education due to whatever disability they are struggling with.
It’s not just the teachers, though, who play a role in special education history in this country. Physicians and clergy, including Itard- mentioned above, Edouard O. Seguin (1812-1880), Samuel Gridley Howe (1801-1876), and Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1787-1851), wanted to ameliorate the neglectful, often abusive treatment of individuals with disabilities. Sadly, education in this country was, more often than not, very neglectful and abusive when dealing with students that are different somehow. There is even a rich literature in our nation that describes the treatment provided to individuals with disabilities in the 1800s and early 1900s. Sadly, in these stories and the real world, the segment of our population with disabilities was often confined in jails and almshouses without decent food, clothing, personal hygiene, and exercise.
For an example of this different treatment in our literature, one needs to look no further than Tiny Tim in Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol (1843). Many times, people with disabilities were often portrayed as villains, such as in the book Captain Hook in J.M. Barrie’s “Peter Pan” in 1911. The authors of this time period’s prevailing view were that one should submit to misfortunes, both as a form of obedience to God’s will and because these seeming misfortunes are ultimately intended for one’s own good. Progress for our people with disabilities was hard to come by at this time, with this way of thinking permeating our society, literature, and thinking.
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So, what was the society to do about these people of misfortune? During much of the nineteenth century and early in the twentieth, professionals believed individuals with disabilities were best treated in residential facilities in rural environments. An out of sight, out of mind kind of thing, if you will. However, by the end of the nineteenth century, these institutions’ size had increased so dramatically that the goal of rehabilitation for people with disabilities wasn’t working. Institutions became instruments for permanent segregation.
I have some experience with these segregation policies of education. Some of it is good, and some of it is not so good. You see, I have been a self-contained teacher on and off throughout the years in multiple environments in self-contained classrooms in public high schools, middle schools, and elementary schools. I have also taught in multiple special education behavioral self-contained schools that totally separated these troubled students with disabilities in managing their behavior from their mainstream peers by putting them in completely different buildings that were sometimes even in different towns from their homes, friends, and peers.
Over the years, many special education professionals became critics of these institutions mentioned above that separated and segregated our children with disabilities from their peers. Irvine Howe was one of the first to advocate taking our youth out of these huge institutions and placing our residents into families. Unfortunately, this practice became a logistical and pragmatic problem, and it took a long time before it could become a viable alternative to institutionalization for our students with disabilities.
Now on the positive side, you might be interested in knowing, however, that in 1817 the first special education school in the United States, the American Asylum for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb (now called the American School for the Deaf), was established in Hartford, Connecticut, by Gallaudet. That school is still there today and is one of the top schools for students with auditory disabilities. A true success story!
However, as you can already imagine, the American School’s lasting success for the Deaf was the exception and not the rule during this time period. And to add to this, in the late nineteenth century, social Darwinism replaced environmentalism as the primary causal explanation for those individuals with disabilities who deviated from those of the general population. Sadly, Darwinism opened the door to the eugenics movement of the early twentieth century. This then led to even further segregation and even sterilization of individuals with disabilities such as mental retardation. It sounds like something Hitler was doing in Germany is also being done right here in our own country, to our own people, by our own people. Scary and inhumane, wouldn’t you agree?
Today, this kind of treatment is obviously unacceptable. And in the early part of the 20th Century, it was also unacceptable to some of the adults, especially the parents of these disabled children. Thus, concerned and angry parents formed advocacy groups to help bring the educational needs of children with disabilities into the public eye. The public had to see firsthand how wrong this eugenics and sterilization movement was for our students that were different if it was ever going to be stopped.
Slowly, grassroots organizations made progress that even led to some states creating laws to protect their citizens with disabilities. For example, in 1930, in Peoria, Illinois, the first white cane ordinance gave individuals blindness the right-of-way when crossing the street. This was a start, and other states did eventually follow suit. In time, this local grassroots movement and states’ movement led to enough pressure on our elected officials to be done on the national level for our people with disabilities.
In 1961, President John F. Kennedy created the President’s Panel on Mental Retardation. And in 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which provided funding for primary education, and is seen by advocacy groups as expanding access to public education for children with disabilities. When one thinks about Kennedy’s and Johnson’s record on civil rights, then it probably isn’t such a surprise finding out that these two presidents also spearheaded this national movement for our people with disabilities. This federal movement led to section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act. This guarantees civil rights for the disabled in the context of federally funded institutions or any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. All these years later, as an educator, I personally deal with 504 cases every single day.